6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Gender

Sexism is a term referring to prejudice or discrimination based on an individual’s gender. Sexism can affect anyone, but it mainly affects women and girls.

Basically all forms of sexism have a negative impact, especially on the emotional aspect of the victim. This is because sexism can lead to extreme behavior, from making statements that reinforce negative stereotypes to violent acts.

The following is a complete review of the types of sexism and their effects that are very important for us to know.

1. What is sexism?

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Gendersexism illustration (pexels.com/Tima Miroshnichenko)

As mentioned earlier, sexism is a presumption or form of discrimination against someone who is usually based on gender. Although it is common for anyone to experience it, it is women who are the victims most often.

Reported Human Rights Channelsexism is predicted to be the root cause of gender inequality around the world.

Sexism can be manifested in several types or forms, namely:

  • Behavior.
  • Body move.
  • Law and policy.
  • Practices and traditions.
  • Picture.
  • Writing.
  • Speech.

2. Hostile sexism

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of a boy hurting a girl (pexels.com/Keira Burton)

Hostile sexism refers to beliefs and behaviors that are overtly hostile to a group of people because of their gender. Form hostile sexism The most well-known is misogyny or hatred of women.

People with hostile sexism may have viewed women as deceptive, lying, and always using seduction to control men. This view may also apply to anyone who expresses their gender in a way that is related to femininity.

Studies in journals Frontiers in Sociology 2019 explains, this type of sexism is considered a dangerous act because it can increase the risk of sexual harassment and gender-based violence.

In Indonesia, there have been studies that reveal the relationship between hostile sexism and the myth of rape, in which the victim is often blamed for the incident. This is supported by research in Current Psychology year 2019.

Read also: Impact and Condition of Victims of Sexual Violence According to Psychologists

3. Benevolent sexism

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of a man helping a woman (pexels.com/Kampus Production)

Different from hostile sexism who looks at women with one eye, benevolent sexism instead labels women as beautiful, innocent, fragile, and in need of protection. As for examples of actions benevolent sexism is to base a woman’s value on her role as wife, mother, or child.

The practice of this type of sexism seems a little confusing. This is because this action is more socially acceptable and may also be supported by women. It is important to understand that although benevolent sexism implementing practices that tend to treat women well, but this type of sexism still labels women as the weaker gender.

4. Ambivalent sexism

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6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of a woman at work (pexels.com/cottonbro)

Sexism on this one is a combination of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. People involved in ambivalent sexism views women as innocent, kind, and pure. However, in different situations, this perception will change, considering women as manipulative and fraudulent figures.

Article entitled “Ambivalent sexism in the 21st century” in the book Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice explained, several researchers involved in the study argued that ambivalent sexism refers to a part of a system.

A practical example is hiring someone because they look good, but can fire them at any time if they don’t respond to sexual advances. In addition, the act of judging “good” and “bad” women from the way they dress is also included in type sexism ambivalent sexism.

Read also: What is Marital Rape and its Effect on the Psychological Condition of the Victim?

5. Institutional sexism

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of women and men working in one sector (pexels.com/fauxels)

This type refers to sexism associated with institutions such as the legal system, government, education system, health system, financial institutions, media, and the workplace. In other words, when a policy creates or strengthens the practice of sexism, it is a form of institutional sexism.

Institutional sexism has a more complex element, where the behavior shown can be hostile (hostile), kind (benevolent), or ambivalent. The most obvious indicators are:

  • Limited gender diversity among political leaders and business executives.
  • There is a gender pay gap in almost every type of work.

6. Internalized sexism

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of victims of sexism (pexels.com/Liza Summer)

Internalized sexism is related to sexism beliefs that are strongly held by each individual. Usually individuals who are trapped in internalized sexism develop it unconsciously as a result of the opinions of others regarding sexist behavior. Examples of his actions, for example, feel ashamed of the inherent aspects of women (menstruation and physical characteristics).

Internalized sexism can cause a person to have feelings of shame, self-doubt, helplessness, and inability to do something.

Reported Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the number of women working in science, technology, and mathematics is less likely to be influenced by internalized sexism.

7. Interpersonal sexism

6 Types of Sexism, Forms of Discrimination Based on Genderillustration of women being mistreated (pexels.com/Keira Burton)

Contrasts with internalized sexism that comes from within the individual, interpersonal sexism it was triggered by someone else. This can happen at work, in the family, even in moments of interaction with strangers.

Action examples interpersonal sexism among others are:

  • Making inappropriate comments about someone’s appearance.
  • Telling women to look more graceful.
  • Engaging in unjustified sexual attention or acts of touch.

Sexism has several types. Prejudice and discrimination based on gender should be dealt with firmly and should not be normalized. This can trigger a danger signal that can affect the victim’s psychological condition. From now on, let’s respect and respect the differences between each other, regardless of gender.

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